ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE
- Zika Virus is an ARBOR Virus meaning Virus is transmitted by arthropods like mosquitoes.
- Closely related to Dengue/Yellow Fever/West Nile/ Japanese Encephalitis Virus
- First isolated in a Monkey in Zika forest of Uganda in 1947, hence the name
- Prior to 2007 only sporadic cases in Africa and Southeast Asia
- In 2007 first outbreak on Yap Island in Micronesia
- In 2013-14 more than 28,000 suspected cases reported from French Polynesia
- In May 2015 first locally acquired case in Brazil and since then it has spread to 62 countries/territories including 51 in Americas
- As of December 7th, 2016 there have been 4575 cases in continental USA, mostly travel associated including 1172 pregnant women with largest numbers in Florida followed by New York State. 32 Live born infants with birth defects and 5 pregnancy losses with birth defects. 13 cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome.
- As of December 7th, 2016 there have been 33838 cases in US Territories including 2639 pregnant women, mostly in Puerto Rico, but some in American Samoa and Virgin Islands. The vast majority of these cases are locally acquired. 50 cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome
- Zika Virus is mostly transmitted by the bite of infected female mosquitoes, infected mother to child transmission during pregnancy and at time of delivery, through sex, blood transfusion and laboratory exposure. One case of infection in a caregiver has been reported in USA
- Incubation period is around 3-12 days and usual symptoms are fever, conjunctivitis, rash, arthralgia, headache and retro orbital pain. Symptoms usually last 2-7 days and 4 out of 5 cases are asymptomatic
- Disease is usually mild with only 3% cases hospitalized and 1 death in Continental USA
- Main Problem with Zika Virus is causing Congenital Zika Syndrome (severe microcephaly, thinning of cerebral cortices and sub-cortical calcifications, scarring of retina, congenital contractures and marked early hypertonia). Loss of pregnancy and Guillain-Barré Syndrome have also been associated
- Prevention is mainly through mosquito control, preventing mosquito bites, prevention of sexual transmission and use of Zika screened negative blood.
- Vaccine is being developed and may be available in 2018 or after
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